Commit e1515cbd authored by Benjamin Knispel's avatar Benjamin Knispel
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added more information to index page

* added info text from Billing award application
* added volunteers, date, and selected pulsar information for each source
* added explanatory text about the information
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<h2>Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Discoveries in Fermi-LAT Data</h2>
<h3>Info</h3>
<p>Einstein@Home searches data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope for signals from
gamma-ray pulsars. Pulsars are very compact stars with extreme physical properties compared to normal matter.
They are rapidly spinning neutron stars that emit pulses, observable from radio to
gamma-ray wavelengths.</p>
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<h3>Results</h3>
<p>Searching for new pulsars is an enormous computational challenge, because their spin
frequencies, sky position and other parameters are unknown. Thus, this requires a blind
search, where one explicitly searches over a dense grid in parameter space. However, the
number of discrete grid points to cover such multi-dimensional parameter spaces is
tremendous and renders "brute forces approaches" computationally unfeasible.</p>
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<h3>Einstein@Home new pulsar discoveries</h3>
<p>We have developed novel and much more efficient data-analysis methods for the volunteer
supercomputer Einstein@Home, which ranks among the fastest 25 computer systems worldwide.
Einstein@Home has now discovered four new gamma-ray pulsars that were previously
inaccessible on computational grounds.</p>
<p>These radio and gamma-ray pulsar discoveries provide important contributions to advance
our (yet very poor) understanding these stellar objects, their population, and their role
in our Universe.</p>
<br>
<h3>New Einstein@Home gamma-ray pulsar discoveries</h3>
<p>This page contains information about the Einstein@Home gamma-ray pulsar discoveries. For
each pulsar we list the volunteers whose computers discovered the pulsar, and the date at
which the pulsar was found.</p>
<p>We also provide a list of selected characteristics for each
of the pulsars. Right ascension is one of the two celestial coordinates that specify the
sky position of the pulsar. Declination is the second of these. The spin frequency describes
how many time per second the pulsar is rotating. The first frequency derivative describes
how much the pulsar is slowing down over time. The energy required to emit electromagnetic
radiation is drawn from the pulsar rotation. The characteristic age is a rough estimate of
the pulsar's age, computed from the spin frequency and its derivative. Finally, the
spin-down power is a measure of the total energy emitted by the pulsar. For comparison, our
Sun outputs roughly 4 x 10<sup>33</sup> erg per second. All pulsars below have a much higher
spin-down power.</p>
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</tr>
<tr>
<td style="vertical-align: top;">
Volunteers (Country):<br>
Date:<br>
<b>Volunteers (Country):</b><br>
<a href="http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/show_user.php?userid=107849">David Z (Canada)</a> and <a href="http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/show_user.php?userid=557206">Test (France)</a><br><br>
<b>Date:</b><br>
06 Jan 2012<br><br>
<b>Selected pulsar parameters:</b><br>
Right ascension: 05:54:05.01(3)<br>
Declination: +31:07:41(4)<br>
Spin frequency: 2.15 Hz<br>
First frequency derivate: -0.66 x 10<sup>-12</sup> Hz/s<br>
Characteristic age: 51.7 kyrs<br>
Spin-down power: 5.6 x 10<sup>34</sup> erg/s<br>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
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</tr>
<tr>
<td style="vertical-align: top;">
Volunteers (Country):<br>
Date:<br>
<b>Volunteers (Country):</b><br>
<a href="http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/show_user.php?userid=63414">Mak-ino (Japan)</a> and <a href="http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/show_user.php?userid=574023">Thomas M. Jackson (USA)</a><br><br>
<b>Date:</b><br>
14 Dec 2011<br><br>
<b>Selected pulsar parameters:</b><br>
Right ascension: 14:22:27.07(1)<br>
Declination: -61:38:28(1)<br>
Spin frequency: 2.93 Hz<br>
First frequency derivate: -0.83 x 10<sup>-12</sup> Hz/s<br>
Characteristic age: 55.8 kyrs<br>
Spin-down power: 9.6 x 10<sup>34</sup> erg/s<br>
</td>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
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</tr>
<tr>
<td style="vertical-align: top;">
Volunteers (Country):<br>
Date:<br>
<b>Volunteers (Country):</b><br>
<a href="http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/show_user.php?userid=337084">The NEMO computing cluster (USA)</a> and --<br><br>
<b>Date:</b><br>
30 Sep 2011<br><br>
<b>Selected pulsar parameters:</b><br>
Right ascension: 15:22:05.3(1)<br>
Declination: -57:35:00(1)<br>
Spin frequency: 9.79 Hz<br>
First frequency derivate: -2.99 x 10<sup>-12</sup> Hz/s<br>
Characteristic age: 51.8 kyrs<br>
Spin-down power: 115.7 x 10<sup>34</sup> erg/s<br>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
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</tr>
<tr>
<td style="vertical-align: top;">
Volunteers (Country):<br>
Date:<br>
<b>Volunteers (Country):</b><br>
<a href="http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/show_user.php?userid=125291">Doug Lean (Australia)</a> and <a href="http://einstein.phys.uwm.edu/show_user.php?userid=103374">Hans-Peter Tobler (Germany)</a><br><br>
<b>Date:</b><br>
19 Sep 2011<br><br>
<b>Selected pulsar parameters:</b><br>
Right ascension: 19:32:19.70(4)<br>
Declination: +19:16:39(1)<br>
Spin frequency: 4.80 Hz<br>
First frequency derivate: -2.15 x 10<sup>-12</sup> Hz/s<br>
Characteristic age: 35.4 kyrs<br>
Spin-down power: 40.7 x 10<sup>34</sup> erg/s<br>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
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